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disk operating system (DOS).
DOS stands for disk operating system. It is a character based or command based operating system. It was the first operating system for desktop computers. Initially it was developed for IBM. Later MS-DOS was developed. Today Microsoft operating systems supports Dos. It is 16 bit operating system. It does not support multi users. It is a character based operating system means as a user to operate with computer using dos he has to work with all commands. It does not support GUI (Graphical user Interface).Many dos based games are developed.
Dos as many versions like dos 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 5.5
Dos 6.2, 6.22, 7.0 .Dos 7.0 is available in window95 and later operating systems. Basically dos have two types of commands.
- Internal Commands
- External Commands.
What is a bootstrap loader?
It is a small program that was resided in ROM(read only memory).Whenever is system is on then automatically that the program which was written in ROM will execute itself and loads operating system from the disk. It is a part of BIOS.
Internal Commands are those commands all the commands are loaded into ram when the system is on. These commands are not resided on disk. These Internal Commands are written in COMMAND.COM. Different Internal Commands are
External Commands are those commands all the commands are resided on disk. These commands are .com, .exe, .bat both internal and external commands run from ms-dos prompt. Different types of external commands are
An operation system is a set of programs which manages and controls the resources that are available in the computer. In other wards and operating system is and interface between the used and the computer.
Here the resources in the sense any device which is connected to the computer like keyboard, mouse, printer, scanner, webcam etc
If you want to work with computer we need any one of the operating system like DOS, windows95, 98,windows7 or windows 8 .Operating system is very essential to work with computer. Whenever we connect a device to the computer, first of all the operating system has to identify that particular device afterwards we have to install the device driver to work the device properly. Some operating systems supports multi users also.
To interact with the computer in dos we use commands and other operating systems it means all graphical operating systems we use mouse to work with the operating system.
The set of instructions is nothing but a program a set of programs is nothing but software.
Software is three types System software, Application software, utility programs.
System software is nothing but a system oriented software it means these software’s are system related software. e.g.: operating system software (windows 98,xp,windows7,8 etc)
Application Software is nothing but an application oriented software like MS office,tally software
utility programs is nothing but a special software like drivers software, printers software, and device driver software.
the relation between a software and a hardware is inter dependency on each other with only software we cannot work with computer or with only hardware we cannot work with computer .it means if we want to work with computer we need software and hardware
The physical equipment of the body of a computer is nothing but hardware.
It means whatever we see in the computer physically all the devices comes under the category of Hardware. Computer has several parts like monitor,CPU,keyboard and mouse mainly in CPU (the total cabinet) it contains several parts like mother board,processor,ram,hard disk,DVD drives these are all called computer components or devices.
Computer has many characteristics namely speed, memory power, accuracy, diligency, versatility.
What is the speed of a Computer?
Every computer has its own speed depends upon the type of the computer we use. The speed of the computer is measured in nano seconds.
What is Memory power?
Memory is measured in megabyte, giga byte. 8 bits = 1 byte,
1024 bytes = 1 MB, 1024 MB= 1 GB
What is an accuracy of a computer?
Computer gives accurate values provided if we give correct data. computer never makes mistakes. operator or user only make mistakes. if you give wrong data computer gives wrong information or error data
What is a diligency of a computer.
Computer works continuously without taking any rest. Computer never takes rest. it requires power and A.C
What is versatility of a computer.
Versatility of a computer is nothing but using a computer in many fields like banks,colleges,science and technology,space even kitchen also we can use computer. Now a days computer is using every where it means computer has versatile feature.
A computer is an electronic device which can do calculations fast on according to the data given by the user. Computer it does not do any task itself and it is referred to as hardware.
To work with computer human intervention is also compulsory. It means to work with computer we need three things software, hardware, operator.